• Phase out unabated coal and fossil gas electricity generation 
  • Rapidly scale up zero-carbon electricity generation 
  • Modernize power grids, scale energy storage and manage power demand 
  • Ensure energy access and a just and equitable transition for all 


  • Reduce demand for cement, steel and plastics 
  • Improve industrial energy efficiency 
  • Electrify industry 
  • Commercialize new solutions for cement, steel and plastics 
  • Reduce methane emissions from oil and gas operations as they are phased down 


  • Guarantee reliable access to safe and modern mobility 
  • Reduce avoidable vehicle and air travel 
  • Shift to public, shared and non-motorized transport 
  • Transition to zero-carbon cars and trucks 
  • Transition to zero-carbon shipping and aviation 

Cities and the Built Environment

  • Adopt land use strategies that limit urban expansion and increase accessibility  
  • Optimize building energy use
  • Decarbonize heating, cooling and appliances
  • Guarantee access to safe, resilient transport and shelter
  • Rapidly scale up zero waste outcomes in cities 

Technological Carbon Removal

  • Scale up technological carbon removal 


  • Increase crop productivity sustainably and without expanding into natural areas
  • Increase livestock productivity sustainably and without expanding into natural areas
  • Increase aquaculture productivity sustainably and without expanding into natural areas
  • Reduce food loss and waste
  • Shift to healthier, more sustainable diets for all
  • Reduce GHG emissions and all forms of pollution from food systems​
  • Reduce the harmful impacts of food production on soil, water, and landscape health​

Forests and Land Management

  • Protect ecosystems on land​
  • Restore deforested and degraded lands​
  • Effectively and sustainably manage land​
  • Sharply reduce pollution 
  • Halt the overexploitation of wild species on land and ensure that use is sustainable​
  • Dramatically slow the spread of invasive, alien species on land​

Ocean Management

  • Protect marine and coastal ecosystems
  • Restore degraded marine and coastal ecosystems
  • Sustainably manage marine and coastal ecosystems
  • Sharply reduce pollution from all sources
  • Halt the overexploitation of estuarine, coastal, and marine species and ensure that use is sustainable​
  • Dramatically slow the spread of invasive, alien species in marine ecosystems​

Freshwater Management

  • Protect freshwater ecosystems​
  • Restore degraded freshwater ecosystems
  • Sustainably manage freshwater ecosystems​
  • Improve water quality​
  • Halt the overexploitation of wild freshwater species and ensure that use is sustainable​
  • Dramatically slow the spread of invasive, alien freshwater species​
  • Ensure reliable access to clean water for all​

Circular Economy

  • Increase material efficiency in production
  • Decrease overconsumption
  • Regenerate material flows
  • Extend the useful life of products and materials
  • Recycle and recover resources at their highest value


  • Measure, disclose, and manage climate- and nature-related financial risks 
  • Scale up public finance for climate and nature 
  • Scale up private finance for climate and nature 
  • Extend economic and financial inclusion to underserved and marginalized groups 
  • Price greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental externalities 
  • Eliminate harmful subsidies and financing 

New Economics for Climate and Nature

  • Scale new economic ideas and narratives
  • Supplement GDP with new measures of prosperity
  • Shift to new analytical frameworks and tools that better capture system connections and complexity
  • Scale-up the adoption of proven or enhanced economic and financial instruments to foster other transitions

Social Inclusion and Equity

  • Provide reliable, universal access to basic services and opportunities
  • Reduce social and political inequities
  • Facilitate a just transition to a net-zero, nature-positive future
  • Re-distribute income and wealth to ensure that they are not concentrated in the hands of the very few

Good Governance

  • Safeguard environmental rights
  • Ensure transparency and access to information
  • Ensure accountability and access to justice
  • Ensure participatory and inclusive decision-making
  • Strengthen international institutions and laws to more effectively respond to crises that transcend national borders 
  • Strengthen domestic institutions to implement policies effectively 
  • Create mechanisms to ensure long term targets align with short term policy goals 
  • Reduce corruption and strengthen rule of law
  • Ensure responsible research, development, and deployment of innovation





Photo by Thoracius Appotite